Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Sample Paper

 

research design paper sample

Research and Outreach Research Design Sample #1 Back to Research Design The research design addresses the pressing problem of providing leadership in K schools in mathematics education. Professional learning opportunities in mathematics content . Different textbooks place different meanings on research design. Some authors consider research design as the choice between qualitative and quantitative research methods. Others argue that research design refers to the choice of specific methods of data collection and analysis. In your. Jan 03,  · Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study.. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.


Research Designs - How to construct an experiment or study


This paper should be used only as an example of a research paper write-up. Horizontal rules signify the top and bottom edges of pages. For sample references which are not included with this paper, you should consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association4th Edition.

This paper is provided only to give you an idea of what a research paper might look like. You are not allowed to copy any of the text of this paper in writing your own report. Because word processor copies of papers don't translate well into web pages, you should note that an actual paper should be formatted according to the formatting rules for your context.

Note especially that there are three formatting rules you will see in this sample paper which you should NOT follow. First, except for the title page, the running header should appear in the upper right corner of every page with the page number below it. Second, paragraphs and text should be double spaced and the start of each paragraph should be indented.

Third, horizontal lines are used to indicate a mandatory page break and should not be used in your paper. This paper describes the psychosocial effects of a program of supported employment SE for persons with severe mental illness.

The SE program involves extended individualized supported employment for clients through a Mobile Job Support Worker MJSW who maintains contact with the client after job placement and supports the client in a variety of research design paper sample. The resulting cases were randomly assigned to either the SE condition treatment group or the usual protocol control group which consisted of life skills training and employment in an in-house sheltered workshop research design paper sample. Significant treatment effects were found on all four measures, but they were in the opposite direction from what research design paper sample hypothesized, research design paper sample.

Instead of functioning better and having more self esteem, persons in SE had lower functioning levels and lower self esteem, research design paper sample. The most likely explanation is that people who work in low-paying service jobs in real world settings generally do not like them and experience significant job stress, whether they have severe mental illness or not.

The implications for theory in psychosocial rehabilitation are considered. Over the past quarter century a shift has occurred from traditional institution-based models of care for persons with severe mental illness SMI to more individualized community-based treatments. Along with this, there has been a significant shift in thought about the potential for persons with SMI to be "rehabilitated" toward lifestyles that more closely approximate those of persons without such illness.

A central issue is the ability of a person to hold a regular full-time job for a sustained period of time. There have been several attempts to develop novel and radical models for program interventions designed to assist persons with SMI to sustain full-time employment while living in the community. The most promising of these have emerged from the tradition of psychiatric rehabilitation with its emphases on individual consumer goal setting, skills training, job preparation and employment support Cook, Jonikas and Solomon, These are relatively new and field evaluations are rare or have only recently been initiated Cook and Razzano, ; Cook, Most of the early attempts to evaluate such programs have naturally focused almost exclusively on employment outcomes.

However, theory suggests that sustained employment and living in the community may have important therapeutic benefits in addition to the obvious economic ones. To date, there have been no formal studies of the effects of psychiatric rehabilitation programs on key illness-related outcomes.

To address this issue, this study seeks to examine the effects of a new program of supported employment on psychosocial outcomes for persons with SMI. Over the past several decades, the theory of vocational rehabilitation has experienced two research design paper sample stages of evolution.

Original models of vocational rehabilitation research design paper sample based on the idea of sheltered workshop employment. Clients were paid a piece rate and worked only with other individuals who were disabled. Controlled studies of sheltered workshop performance of persons with mental illness suggested only minimal success Griffiths, and other research indicated that persons with mental illness earned lower wages, presented more behavior problems, and showed poorer workshop attendance than workers with other disabilities Whitehead, ; Ciardiello, In the s, a new model of services called Supported Employment SE was proposed as less expensive and more normalizing for persons undergoing rehabilitation Wehman, The SE model emphasizes first locating a job in an integrated setting for minimum wage or above, research design paper sample, and then placing the person on the job and providing the training and support services needed to remain employed Wehman, One of the more notable SE programs was developed at Thresholds, the site for the present study, which created a new staff position called the mobile job support worker MJSW and removed the common six month time limit for many placements.

Time limits for many placements were removed so that clients could stay on research design paper sample permanent employees if they and their employers wished. There are two key psychosocial outcome constructs of interest in this study. The first is the overall psychological functioning of the person with SMI. This would include the specification of severity of cognitive and affective symptomotology as well as the overall level of psychological functioning.

The second is the level of self-reported self esteem of the person. This was measured both generally and with specific reference to employment.

H O : A program of supported employment will result in either no change or negative effects on psychological functioning and self esteem.

H A : A program research design paper sample supported employment will lead to positive effects on psychological functioning and self esteem. The population of interest for this study is all adults with SMI residing in the U.

The population that is accessible to this study consists of all persons who were clients of the Thresholds Agency in Chicago, Illinois between the dates of March 1, research design paper sample February 28, who met the following criteria: 1 a history of severe mental illness e.

The sampling frame was obtained from records of the agency. Because of the large number of clients who pass through the agency each year e. This resulted in a sample size of persons over the two-year course of the study. In terms of illness history, the members in the sample averaged 4 prior psychiatric hospitalizations and spent a lifetime average of 9 months as patients in psychiatric hospitals.

Participants had spent an average of almost two and one-half years 29 months at the longest job they ever held, research design paper sample.

While the study sample cannot be considered representative of the original population of interest, generalizability was not a primary goal -- the major purpose of this study was to research design paper sample whether a specific SE program could work in an accessible context. Any effects of SE evident in this study can be generalized to urban psychiatric agencies that are similar to Thresholds, have a similar clientele, and implement a similar program, research design paper sample.

All but one of the measures used in this study are well-known instruments in the research literature on psychosocial functioning, research design paper sample. All of the instruments were administered as part of a structured interview that an evaluation social worker had with study participants at regular intervals. Two measures of psychological functioning were used.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale BPRS Overall and Gorham, is an item scale that measures perceived severity of symptoms ranging from "somatic concern" and "anxiety" to "depressive mood" and "disorientation. The Global Assessment Scale GAS Endicott et al, is a single 1-to rating on a scale where each ten-point increment has a detailed description of functioning higher scores indicate better functioning.

For instance, research design paper sample would give a rating between if the person showed "no symptoms, superior functioning Two measures of self esteem were used. The total score is simply the sum across the ten items, with five of the items being reversals. The final ten items were selected from a pool of 97 original candidate items, based upon high item-total score correlations and a judgment of face validity by a panel of three psychologists, research design paper sample.

This instrument was deliberately kept simple -- a shorter response scale and no reversal items -- because of the difficulties associated with measuring a population with SMI.

The entire instrument is provided in Appendix A. All four of the measures evidenced strong reliability and validity. Internal consistency reliability estimates using Cronbach's alpha ranged from. Test-retest reliabilities were nearly as high, ranging from. Convergent validity was evidenced by the correlations within construct. For the two psychological functioning scales the correlation was. Discriminant validity was examined by looking at the cross-construct correlations which ranged from.

A pretest-posttest two-group randomized experimental design was used in this study. In notational form, the design can be depicted as:. The comparison group received the standard Thresholds protocol which emphasized in-house training in life skills and employment in an in-house sheltered workshop. All participants were measured at intake pretest and at three months after intake posttest. This type of randomized experimental design is generally strong in internal validity.

It rules out threats of history, maturation, testing, research design paper sample, instrumentation, mortality and selection interactions. Its primary weaknesses are in the potential for treatment-related mortality i.

Because these rates are low and are approximately equal in each group, it is not plausible that there is differential mortality. There is a possibility that there were some deleterious effects due to participant knowledge of the other group's existence e. Staff were debriefed at several points throughout the study and were explicitly asked about such issues, research design paper sample.

There were no reports of any apparent negative feelings from the participants in this regard. Nor is it plausible that staff might have equalized conditions between the two groups. Staff were given extensive training and were monitored throughout the course of the study. Overall, this study can be considered strong with respect to internal validity. For those selected, the purpose of the study was explained, including the nature of the two treatments, and the need for and use of random assignment.

Participants were assured confidentiality and were given an opportunity to decline to participate in the study. Only 7 people out of refused to participate. In addition, all study participants were given the four measures at intake.

All participants spent the initial two weeks in the program in training and orientation. This consisted research design paper sample life skill training e.

At the end of that period, each participant was assigned to a job site -- at the agency sheltered workshop for those in the control condition, and to an outside employer if in the Supported Employment group. Control participants were expected to work full-time at the sheltered workshop for a three-month period, at which point they were posttested and given an opportunity to obtain outside employment either Supported Employment or not, research design paper sample.

The Supported Employment participants were each assigned a case worker -- called a Mobile Job Support Worker MJSW -- who met with the person at the job site two times per week for an hour each time.

The MJSW could provide any support or assistance deemed necessary to help the person cope with job stress, including counseling or working beside the person for short periods of time. In addition, the MJSW was always accessible by cellular telephone, and could be called by the participant or the employer at any time. At the end of three months, each participant was post-tested and given the option of staying with their current job research design paper sample or without Supported Employment or moving to the sheltered workshop, research design paper sample.

There were participants in the final sample for this study, in each treatment. There were 9 drop-outs from the control group and 13 from the treatment group, leaving a total of and in each group respectively from whom both pretest and posttest were obtained. Due to unexpected difficulties in coping with job stress, 19 Supported Employment participants had to be transferred into the sheltered workshop prior to the posttest. In all 19 cases, no one was transferred prior to week 6 research design paper sample employment, and 15 were transferred after week 8.

In all analyses, these cases were included with the Supported Employment group intent-to-treat analysis yielding treatment effect estimates that are likely to be conservative.

 

Research Design Sample 1 | College of Education Research and Outreach | New Mexico State University

 

research design paper sample

 

Different textbooks place different meanings on research design. Some authors consider research design as the choice between qualitative and quantitative research methods. Others argue that research design refers to the choice of specific methods of data collection and analysis. In your. Sample APA Research Paper Sample Title Page Running on Empty 1 Running on Empty: The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg Dordt College Place manuscript page headers one-half inch from the top. Put five spaces between the page header and the page number. Full title, authors, and school name. Jan 03,  · Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study.. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.